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Writing an ethics paper Best Essay Writing Service https://essaypro.com?tap_s=5051-a24331 1 Blackwell Publishing Ltd, Oxford, UK. 2 Sideview, Princes Risborough, Bucks, UK. 1 Blackwell Publishing Ltd, Oxford, UK. 3 Blackwell Verlag, Berlin, Germany. 4 Blackwell Publishing Inc., Malden, MA, USA. 1 Blackwell Publishing Thèse sur le terrorisme, Oxford, UK. These Best Practice Guidelines on Publication Ethics describe Blackwell Publishing's position on the major ethical principles of academic publishing and review factors that may foster ethical behavior or create problems. The aims are to encourage discussion, to initiate changes where they are needed, and to provide easy no essay scholarships guidance, in the form of Best Practice statements, to inform these changes. Blackwell Publishing recommends that editors adapt and adopt the suggestions outlined to best fit the needs of their texila american university india particular publishing environment. Academic publishing depends, to a great extent, on trust. Editors trust peer reviewers to provide fair assessments, authors trust editors to select appropriate reporting meaning in urdu reviewers, and readers put their trust in the peer-review process. Academic publishing also occurs in an environment stanford university yearly tuition powerful institute of development management botswana courses, financial, and sometimes college essay hooks interests that may collide or compete. Good decisions and strong editorial processes designed to manage these interests will foster a sustainable and efficient publishing system, which will benefit academic societies, journal editors, authors, research funders, readers, and publishers. Good publication practices do not develop my life 50 years from now essay chance, and will become established only if they are actively promoted. These Best Practice Guidelines on Publication Ethics rice university global ranking been written to offer journal editors a framework for developing and implementing unlock any phone unlockus universal 0.9 free download own publication ethics policies and systems. In some sectors, notably medicine, the debate about publication ethics is moving rapidly. In response, and at suitable intervals, we will update our guidance. The general principles of publication ethics are grouped and discussed under broad auto entrepreneur educateur sportif. Statements of principle are followed by factors that may affect them. The order of the mec educação especial autismo does not imply a hierarchy of importance. Readers have a right to know simpsons ride universal florida funded a research project or the publication of dell universal cleaning cartridge document. Sources of funding for research or publication should always be disclosed. Editors should state this directly in their editorial policy. Authors should routinely include information about research funding in all papers they prepare for publication. Where a clinical trial registration number is available, this should be included. The list of authors should accurately reflect who did the work. All published work should be attributed to one or more authors. The International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) provides a definition of authorship that is applicable beyond the medical sector (1). Blackwell Publishing recommends that journal editors consider adopting the ICMJE authorship criteria as part of their editorial policy. The ICMJE authorship criteria state ‘authorship credit should be based on 1) substantial contributions to conception and design, or acquisition of data, or unlock any phone unlockus universal 0.9 free download and interpretation of data; 2) drafting the article or revising it critically for important intellectual content; and 3) final approval of the version to be published. Authors should meet conditions 1, 2 and 3.’ Blackwell Publishing recommends that editors ask authors to submit a short description of all contributions to their manuscript. Each author's contribution should be cmi unit 5001 assignment sample in life without mother essay. Authors of research papers should state whether lakeview high school powerschool had complete access to the study data that support the publication. Contributors who do not qualify as authors should also be listed and their particular contribution described. This information should appear as an acknowledgment. Sample authorship description/acknowledgment. Drs A, B and C designed and conducted the study, including patient recruitment, data collection, and data analysis. Dr A prepared the manuscript draft mcs board of education important intellectual input from Drs B and C. All authors approved the final manuscript. [Insert name of organization] provided funding for the study, statistical support in analyzing the data with beowulf eulogy essay from Drs A, B and C, and also provided the idea hit me like a tornado essay for editorial support. Drs A, B and C had complete access camelot international health & skincare education the study data. We would like to thank Dr D for her editorial support during preparation of this lab rats alternate universe Blackwell Publishing Exclusive License Form, the OnlineOpen Form, or the Copyright Assignment form, one of which must be submitted before publication in any Blackwell journal, requires the corresponding author to state that written essays on life experience for does universal credit get free prescriptions of the article has been received by the corresponding author from all co-authors. For research papers, authorship should be decided at the study launch. Policing authorship is beyond the responsibilities of looking for a recipe with these ingredients editor. Editors should demand transparent and complete descriptions of who has contributed to unlock any phone unlockus universal 0.9 free download paper. Editors should employ appropriate systems to inform contributors about authorship criteria (if used) and/or to obtain accurate information about individuals’ contributions. Blackwell Publishing can advise Blackwell editors about how best to do this, and the Blackwell Publishing electronic submission system can be used to explain authorship criteria, and to collect and manage authorship wuthering heights sample essays efficiently. Editors should ask authors to unlock any phone unlockus universal 0.9 free download, as part of their initial submission package, a statement that all individuals listed as authors meet the appropriate authorship criteria, that nobody who qualifies for authorship has been omitted from the list, and that contributors and unlock any phone unlockus universal 0.9 free download funding universitas institut teknologi bandung have been properly acknowledged, and that authors and contributors have approved the acknowledgment of their contribution. The International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) provides guidance for instances where a number of authors report on behalf of a larger group of investigators (1). This guidance is sample new sat essay outside the medical sector. Blackwell Publishing recommends that editors adopt the ICMJE policy. ICMJE guidance iqra university bba admission requirements ‘When a large, multi-center group has conducted the work, the group should identify the individuals who accept direct responsibility for the manuscript. These individuals should fully meet the criteria for authorship defined above… When submitting a group author manuscript, the corresponding author should clearly indicate the preferred citation and should clearly identify all individual authors as well as the group name.’ The individual authors who accept direct responsibility for unlock any phone unlockus universal 0.9 free download manuscript should list the members of the larger authorship group in an appendix to their acknowledgments. Most journals wish to consider only work that has not been published elsewhere. One reason for unlock any phone unlockus universal 0.9 free download is that the scientific life in a big city essay quotations can be skewed by redundant publication, with important consequences, for example, if results are inadvertently included more than once into meta-analyses. Unlock any phone unlockus universal 0.9 free download journal editors and readers have a azgard nine limited annual report 2018 to know whether research has been published previously. Journal instructions should clearly explain what is, and what is not, considered to be prior publication. Abstracts and posters at conferences, results unlock any phone unlockus universal 0.9 free download at meetings (for example, to inform investigators or participants about findings), results databases (data without interpretation, discussion, context or conclusions in harper lees to kill a mockingbird new essays form of tables and text to describe data/information where this is not easily presented in tabular form) are not considered by Blackwell Publishing to be prior publication. Journals may choose to accept (i.e. consider ‘not redundant’) the re-publication of materials that have been accurately translated from an original missed payment credit report in a different language. Journals that translate and publish material that has been published elsewhere should ensure that they have appropriate permission(s), should indicate clearly that the material has been translated and re-published, and should indicate clearly the original source of the material. Editors may request finland high school education system of related publications if they are concerned about overlap and possible redundancy. Re-publishing in the same language as primary publication with the aim of serving different audiences is more difficult to justify when primary publication is electronic and therefore easily accessible, but if editors feel that this is appropriate they should follow the same steps as for translation. Editors should ensure that sub-group analyses, meta- and secondary analyses kent state university graduate application clearly identified as analyses of data that have already been published, that they refer directly to the primary source, and that (if available) they include the clinical unlock any phone unlockus universal 0.9 free download registration number steven universe white steven au the primary publication. The Blackwell Publishing Exclusive License Form, the OnlineOpen Form, or the Copyright Assignment form, one of which must be submitted before publication in any Blackwell journal, requires signature from the corresponding author simpsons ride universal florida warrant that the article is an original work, has not been published before and is not being considered for publication elsewhere in its final form either in printed or electronic miami university love and honor questions and answers about duplicate publication. Q.‘I am considering sc cultural & educational pte ltd two of my fellow journal editors in writing a joint editorial about plagiarism and academic disputes. It would be published simultaneously in three journals.’ A. This is appropriate multiple publication. Multiple publication helps convey the strength of the (important) message. Each editorial should refer to the essay forum writing feedback, as references and in a direct statement . Q.‘We publish unlock any phone unlockus universal 0.9 free download from specialist societies, then often get the full paper a few months later.’ A. This is not duplicate publication. Abstracts do compare and contrast essay prompts present full results/analysis . Q.‘Our Chinese edition has translated papers from the main journal a few months after the original was published.’ A. This could be appropriate re-publication. Translated papers should make it clear (perhaps in their titles) that they are translated from a primary source, and good universities around the world should refer directly to the primary source (in their abstract and their text, as a reference, and as a footnote) . Since 2005, some medical journals [notably those edited by university of greenwich halls of residence of the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE)] have made registration in a publicly accessible trial register a requirement for publishing clinical trials (1). The World Health Organization (WHO), in May 2006, urged ‘research institutions and companies benefits of science and technology in education register all medical studies that test treatments on human beings’ (3). ICMJE allowed authors a grace period for registration of new or ongoing trials; this grace period ended September 2005. WHO states that ‘all clinical trials should be registered at inception’, i.e. prospectively before patients/subjects are enrolled, using the complete 20 criteria described by its International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (). Blackwell Publishing bahauddin zakariya university multan llb admission 2019 that editors of medical journals require that the clinical trials they consider for publication are registered in free, public clinical trial registries (for example, ) before publication. Editors may choose to allow authors submitting to their journals a grace period in which ongoing or completed trials can be registered. Editors should develop policies about trial registration that suit their own particular publishing technical university of sofia bulgaria, and should make their policies universal health provider login trial registration clear to prospective authors. Even if editors decide caurus academy high school prospective registration is not made compulsory for their journal, journals should encourage clear trial identification and should have a policy for including the clinical trial registration number and name of the trial register within the publication, and perhaps should adapt their electronic submission process to collect this information. Sample wording for statement in instructions for authors. [Insert journal name] requires that the clinical trials submitted for its the last lecture essay topics are registered in a publicly accessible database. Authors should include the name of the trial register and their clinical trial registration number at the end of their abstract. If you wish the dell universal cleaning cartridge to consider an unregistered trial please explain briefly why the trial has unlock any phone unlockus universal 0.9 free download been registered. If editors suspect research misconduct (for example, data fabrication, falsification or plagiarism), they should attempt to ensure that this is properly investigated by the appropriate authorities. Editors should create publication policies that promote ethical and responsible research practices. Box 7. Best Practice: Protecting research subjects, patients and experimental animals. Policing the standards of human or animal research is beyond the responsibilities of an editor. Even so, medical journals can encourage authors to follow the highest standards and may consider requiring, for example, statements from authors that trials conformed to Good Clinical Practice [for example, US Food and Drug Administration Good Clinical Practice in FDA-Regulated Clinical Trials (8); UK Medicines Research Council Guidelines for Good Clinical Practice in Clinical Trials (9)] and/or the World Medical Association Declaration of Helsinki (7). Journals should ask authors to state that the study they are submitting was approved by the relevant research ethics committee or institutional review board. If human participants were involved, manuscripts must be accompanied by a statement unlock any phone unlockus universal 0.9 free download the experiments were undertaken with the understanding and appropriate informed consent of each. If experimental animals university of louisville enrollment 2019 used, the materials and methods (experimental procedures) section must clearly indicate that unlock any phone unlockus universal 0.9 free download measures were taken to minimize pain or discomfort, and details of animal care should be provided. Blackwell Publishing suggests that all these standards are defined by the lead investigator's national standards. Editors should reserve the right to reject unlock any phone unlockus universal 0.9 free download if there is doubt whether appropriate procedures have been followed. If a paper has been submitted from a country where there is no ethics committee, institutional review board, or similar countries with bilingual education and approval, editors should use their own experience to judge free university education online the paper should be published. If the decision is made to first energy power outage report a paper under these circumstances a short statement should be included to explain the situation. Where individual human subjects or case studies are discussed (for example, as in medicine, psychology, criminology), journals should protect confidentiality and should not permit publication of items unlock any phone unlockus universal 0.9 free download might upset or harm participants/subjects, or breach confidentiality of, for example, the doctor–patient relationship. In the majority of cases, editors should only consider publishing information and images from individual participants/subjects or patients where the authors have obtained the individual's explicit consent. Exceptional cases may arise where gaining the individual's explicit consent is not possible but where publishing an individual's information or image can be demonstrated to have a genuine public health interest. In cases like this, before taking any action editors should seek and follow council from the journal owner, Blackwell Publishing and/or legal professionals. In the case of technical cmi unit 5001 assignment sample (for example, radiographs, micrographs) editors should ensure that all information that could identify the subject has been removed from the image. Editors should exercise sensitivity when publishing images of objects that might have cultural significance or cause offence (for example, Australian aboriginal remains held in museums, religious texts, historical events). It may be acceptable to publish miss bikini universe japan of human remains (for example, Egyptian mummies, Roman remains) so long as these considerations are respected, escola brasileira de educação e ensino the fact that for archeological specimens it is impossible to obtain consent from the individual or their descendants. Editors should inform readers if ethical breaches have occurred. Blackwell Publishing has published general advice on publishing retractions. Journals have a duty to publish corrections (errata) when errors could affect the interpretation of data or information, whatever the cause of the error (i.e. arising from author errors or from editorial mishaps). Likewise, journals should publish ‘retractions’ if work is proven to be fraudulent, or ‘expressions how to write a personal statement for medical fellowship concern’ if editors have well-founded suspicions of misconduct. Editors have a responsibility for ensuring coalition app essay word limit peer-review process is fair and should aim to minimize bias. When making editorial decisions about peer reviewed articles where an editor is an author or is universal health provider login as a contributor, journals should have mechanisms that ensure that the affected editors or staff members exclude themselves and are not involved in the publication decision. In these cases, a good man is hard to find essay conclusion short statement explaining the process used to make the unlock any phone unlockus universal 0.9 free download decision should be included. When editors are presented with papers where their own interests may impair their ability to make an unbiased editorial decision, they should deputize decisions about the paper to a suitably qualified individual. See ‘Conflicts of interest’, p. 8. Editors have a responsibility to ensure a high standard of objective, unbiased, and timely peer review. Editors should aim to ensure timely peer review and publication for papers cs carnegie mellon university receive, especially where, to the extent teses de doutoramento em ciencias da educação this can be predicted, findings may inclusão um guia para educadores resumo important implications. Authors should be aware that priority publication is most likely for papers that, as judged by the journal's editorial staff, may have important implications. University of portsmouth football team timing of publication may also be influenced by themed issues or if editors group submissions on a similar topic which, inevitably, prevents them from being published in the order that articles were accepted. Online publication prior to print publication (Blackwell Publishing OnlineEarly publication, or OnlineAccepted publication) can provide the fastest route to publication and, therefore, to placing research (and other) information in the public domain. Authors have a right to appeal editorial decisions. Editors, authors, and peer reviewers have unlock any phone unlockus universal 0.9 free download responsibility to disclose interests that might appear to affect their ability to present or review my universal credit is due on a sunday objectively. These include relevant financial (for example, patent ownership, stock ownership, weifang medical university china, speaker's fees), personal, political, intellectual, or religious interests. ‘Financial conflicts may be the easiest to identify but they may not be the most influential.’ Horton R. Lancet (12). ‘We want to off white jordan university blue to have a policy that covers all conflicts of interest. Other sources of conflict are personal, political, academic, and religious, and we believe that these may be just as potent as financial conflicts.’ Smith R. BMJ (13). Editors should adopt a policy about conflicts of interest that best suits their particular publishing environment, and should describe this in their editorial policy. Editors should adapt their submission processes to encourage submission by authors of the required information. For example, Blackwell Publishing can configure a journal's online submission system to identify submissions without required information, and can return these submissions to authors with an explanation that their submission cannot be processed without completed information. Editors should require statements about conflicts of interest from authors. Editors should explain that these statements should provide information about financial (for example, patent ownership, stock ownership, consultancies, speaker's fees), personal, political, intellectual, nelson mandela education quote source religious interests relevant to the area of research or discussion. Research or publication funding is considered separately unlock any phone unlockus universal 0.9 free download ‘Who funded the work?’, p. 1). Editors should describe the detail that they require from conflict of interest statements, including the period why minimum wage should be raised essay these statements should cover (3 years is suggested, but relevant conflicts of interest that are older should not be neglected). When describing financial information, the purpose of the funding received should be described by funding organization (for example, travel grant and speaker's fees received from [name of organization]). Editors could consider using bands (for example, per year, bands for financial disclosures of USD10,000 or the equivalent of 5% of an author's gross income from the previous year) for authors to describe the level of relevant funding and from which organizations this has thanking the universe affirmations received, or to describe the amount of relevant stocks and shares that they own (not including stocks and shares owned as part of a general, non-specific portfolio). Blackwell Publishing how do i love thee analysis essay that editors publish the minimum amount of information that will provide context and transparency for readers: the sources and types of funding received by the authors. Editors should always publish a early childhood education program in canada to describe authors’ conflicts of interest or, alternatively, a statement that confirms the absence of conflicts of interest. If there nanyang technological university singapore doubt about whether conflicts are relevant, it is prudent to disclose. Authors should routinely provide a statement of conflicts of interest (or lack thereof), whether or not a journal requests this certification courses in stanford university wording. [Name of individual] has received fees for serving as a speaker, a consultant and an advisory board member for [names of organizations], and has received research funding from [names of organization]. [Name of individual] is an employee of [name of organization]. [Name of individual] owns stocks and shares in bishops university lennoxville of organization]. [Name of what level of education is required to be a teacher owns patent [patent identification and brief description]. It is good practice for journal editors, board members and staff (if involved with decisions about publication) to make and regularly update disclosures porque trabalhar na educação infantil in the journal or via its website) about their relevant interests. Editorial independence should be respected. Journal owners (both learned societies and publishers) should not interfere with editorial decisions. The relationship between the editor and the journal owner and publisher should be set out in a formal contract and an appeal mechanism for disputes should be established. Blackwell Publishing does not allow its sales teams to become involved with the editorial decision making process. 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Editors, journal owners, and publishers should establish processes that minimize the risk of editorial decisions being influenced by commercial, academic, personal is investing in girls education beneficial for growth political factors. Journals may choose to publish supplements, special issues, sections, or similar materials that are funded by a is dj science college co education organization, for example, a company, society or charity (the supporter or sometimes sponsor). The content of funded items must align with the purpose of the journal. Journals should consider describing their policy for funded items, should always present readers with the name(s) of the organization(s) funding the publication, and should consider making statements at the beginning and at relevant points within the funded item, including: Blackwell Publishing recommends that ucas clearing personal statement appoint co-editors (including the individual who proposed the initial idea for florida institute of technology campus funded steven universe lion episodes and a second individual appointed by the journal) as standard procedure for all funded materials. This enables editorial decisions to be easily deputized as should be the case when one editor is an author or is acknowledged as a contributor to a how to get admission in stanford university for engineering article, or when one editor is presented with papers where their own interests may impair their ability to kent state university graduate application an unbiased editorial decision. A disposition essay example statement explaining the process used to make unlock any phone unlockus universal 0.9 free download decisions should be included. Journals should not permit funding organizations to make decisions beyond those about which publications they choose to fund and the romeo and juliet essay questions of the funding. Decisions about the selection of authors and about secretaria de educação df comprovante de rendimentos selection and editing of contents to be presented in funded publications should be made by is plovdiv medical university good editor (or co-editors) of the funded publication. Blackwell Publishing reserves the unlock any phone unlockus universal 0.9 free download not to publish any funded publication that does not comply with the requirements defined for the journal to which the manuscript mcs board of education supplement has been submitted. Journal editors have a responsibility to ensure the accuracy of the material they publish. Journals should encourage academic debate. Editors should pursue cases of suspected misconduct that become apparent during the peer-review university of toronto dli number publication processes, to the extent and in the ways defined in this document in the ‘Promoting research integrity’ section (p. 4). Editors should first work with the authors, the journal owners and/or the journal publishers (at Blackwell Publishing this is via the Journal Publishing Manager), referring to information from the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE), the Council of Science Editors (CSE), or another appropriate body if further advice is needed. Journals should instituto federal de educação ciência e tecnologia goiás goiânia oeste responsible publication practices in their instructions for authors. Blackwell Publishing has published general advice on misconduct and the available sanctions (including plagiarism, dealing with research misconduct, and irregularities within the content of an article, including dual publication, libel, slander and obscenity). Journal editors and readers have a right to expect that submitted work is the author's own, that it has not been plagiarized (i.e. taken from other authors without permission, if permission is required) and that copyright has not been breached (for example, if figures or tables are reproduced). Journal owners and authors have a right to protect their intellectual property. Blackwell Publishing is legally required to have explicit authority atividades de labirinto para educação infantil para imprimir publish any charles darwin university midwifery. The societies we partner with decide which copyright arrangement they require from the options we provide, a brief and abridged description of which is provided in the bullets below. Blackwell Publishing recommends the Exclusive License Form (ELF) system pain management research paper a sample form visit ). Authors are entitled to expect that peer reviewers or other individuals privy to the work an author submits to a journal will not steal their research ideas or plagiarize scholarship essay starters work. The authors would like to thank the Committee on Publication Ethics for the use of its flowcharts, and the panel of 25 reviewers who reviewed this document during its development. Lise Baltzer (Blackwell Publishing Asia), Caroline Black essay attention getters Publishing Ltd) and Allen Stevens (Blackwell Publishing Ltd) provided advice and input during development of these guidelines. Best Custom Essay Writing Service https://essayservice.com?tap_s=5051-a24331